NECO GCE Geography Theory Paper II Expo Answer – Nov/Dec 2017

NECO GCE 2017 Nov/Dec Geography Theory (Essay) Answer and Solution to the questions. Verified expo answer

(i) Industries:
Industrial growth offers massive employment opportunities and acts as a great magnet to attract people, particularly from the neighbouring areas. This results in higher population density. Industrial areas are almost invariably associated with areas of high population densities. Example is China.
(ii) Mineral Resources:
Minerals act as great source of attraction for people from different areas, which results in higher density of population. Just like we have Crude oil in River State, it attracts population.
(iii) Water Bodies:
Availability of water plays a significant role in determining the population of a given area. Water is the basic necessity for several purposes including irrigation, industries, transport and domestic affairs. Rivers are the greatest source of fresh potable water. Therefore, most of the population is concentrated in the river valleys.
(iv) Urbanization:
Urbanization and population concentration go hand-in-hand and are closely related to each other. All the urban centres are marked by high density of population. Just like we have in Lagos, Abuja, PortHarcourt,etc

(i) Depletion of Natural Resources: The effects of overpopulation are quite severe. The first of these is the depletion of resources. The Earth can only produce a limited amount of water and food, which is falling short of the current needs.
(ii) Degradation of Environment: With the overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, it has started producing some serious effects on our environment. Rise in the number of vehicles and industries have badly affected the quality of air.
(iii) Conflicts and Wars: Overpopulation in developing countries puts a major strain on the resources it should be utilizing for development. Conflicts over water are becoming a source of tension between countries, which could result in wars.
(iv) Rise in Unemployment: When a country becomes overpopulated, it gives rise to unemployment as there fewer jobs to support large number of people.

(i) Better Education: One of the first measures is to implement policies reflecting social change. Educating the masses helps them understand the need to have one or two children at the most
(ii) Family Planning Awareness: As population of this world is growing at a rapid pace, raising awareness among people regarding family planning and letting them know about serious after effects of overpopulation can help curb population growth.
(iii) Tax Benefits or Concessions: Government of various countries might have to come with various policies related to tax exemptions to curb overpopulation.
(iv) Knowledge of Sex Education: Imparting sex education to young kids at elementary level should be must. Most parents feel shy in discussing such things with their kids which result in their children going out and look out for such information on internet or discuss it with their peers.


(i) Value of the currency: The value of the U.S dollar compared to other foreign currencies is important for all businesses, even if they do not engage in import or export with other countries. When the currency falls to dollar, it affects the growth of industries just like we encounter in Africa.
(ii) Political instability: High-level corruption, bad governance, cyclical legitimacy crisis and other policical crises which are termed as political instability in Africa hinders the growth of manufacturing.
(iii) Inadequate power supply: Electricity have a profound effect on the growth of a manufacturing industry. Due to inadequate electricity supply, manufacturing industries spend much on diesel for power supply, which discourages industrialization.

(i) concentrated in towns
(ii) products mainly consumed internally
(iii) dominated by foreign multinational companies
(iv) mainly small scale industries
(v) labour intensive
(vi) production of consumer goods

(i) For employment generation
(ii) To improve economic growth
(iii) For development of skilled manpower
(iv) For stimulation of other sectors


(i)Iron ore-Ajaokuta (Kogi state)
(ii)Tin and columbite-Jos (plateau state)
(iii)Coal-Enugu(Benue state
(iv)Petroleum-Portharcourt(rivers state)

(i) Environmental pollution:There is environmental pollution in the area where mineral resources has been mined eg oil spillage.Thereby affecting the water and plant produce
(ii) Constant conflicts with local people:There is the problem of constant conflict with the local people and the prospecting companies in the areas where mining is to take place because it does affect there local product
(iii) Destruction of agricultural produce:Farm lands are being destroyed while mining and this affects the farmers and agricultural produce are reduced to the minimal in areas where mining take place
(iv) Environmental hazards:Hazards such as desert encroachment,leaching,erosion,earthquakes or even flood happen in areas where mining takes place.This is due to the machines being used to bore holes in the ground during mining

(i) Proper sanitation and general clean up of the areas where mining has taken place.Areas where mining has taken place should be cleaned up immediately after mining and should not be abandoned
(ii) Good transportation of the minerals to reduce the spillage of the minerals especially petroleum
(iii) Employment opportunities should be given to the locals in the areas so as to reduce companies local conflicts
(iv) Trained personnel should be employed while mining so as to reduce error of spillage and environmental hazards in the area where mining takes place



(i) The volume of water released:The higher the volume of water released by a river,the higher the velocity.However the volume decreses during the dry season thereby causing the shrinking of the basin
(ii) Slope of the river valley:The steeper the slope the higher the velocity of water in the basin.The lesser the slope of the river valley causes shrinking of the basin
(iii) Amount and size of materials :The greater the speed of a river,the greater materials or loads it can carry or move.The higher the size of materials the higher the rate at which the basin shrinks

(i) River basins provide employment(fishing) to many people.fishermen and canoe builders
(ii) River basins are centres for tourists attractions and many generate foreign exchange for the nation
(iii) It aids promotion of sports
(iv) River basin also provide water for irrigation purposes
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